Рoetry of modernism


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1.The poetry of modernism:basic characteristics
The basic characteristics of poetry of modernism are:
When we put two isssues which are not similar next two each other,a kind of comparison-juxtaposition.Other thing that is typical for the modernist poetry is that the authors skillfully built in their works different metaphors from thе ones that were used till that time.Intertextuality and classical allusions are also specific for the poetry.The use of borrowings from a variety of languages and cultures is peculiar for the writing of the modernists.The representatives of that time experimented with the form of the poems and they wrote their works in free verse.

2.Explain the central symbol in “Lord of the Flies”
There are a lot of symbos that Golding uses in his work “Lord of the Flies”.One of the main symbol which saturates the whole book is namely the conch.It is аn embodiment of order and authority.If someone possesses the conch he/she has the power to order and rule,When it is called everyone has to listen.A symbol of such importance is also the glasses of Piggy-а symbol of erudition and intuition.When Piggy has them he has the ability to give pieces of advice to the group,but the group loses the intuition when the glasses are broken.
3.Which are the major novels of Iris Murdoch?What is typical of her style?
Iris Murdoch was a person who strived all the time about perfection in her literary works.She wrote 26 novels.Her first novel was Under the net,written in 1954.A Severed Head,written in 1961 was the base of producing the play by Priestley.The later it was made a movie that was based of the novel.It is novel about the theories of Freud about the sexuality and desires of male human beings.AN ACCIDENTAL MAN is a novel with rich phylosophu and scandal.The letters and the conversations between the hores in the novel built the story of the book.The most successful novel was The Bell.Here we have a book which is cоncentrated on the depiction of a Anglican religious community in Gloucetershire.The events in the book are about a bell that should be placed in an abbey tower.It is impossible the bell to be moved to the point the heroes of the novel want as the bell falls into the water.The black Prince has a surprising ending that changes our notion about the characters in the book. In THE RED AND THE GREEN Murdoch used facts froms the history and used the story of a Easter Rebellion in Dublin as a center in the novel.In THE TIME OF THE ANGELS,written in 1965 we have a queer Anglican priest who worships the Devil.He has a daughter-Muriel-that finds out about his niece,who is actually his natural daughter. Muriel lets him die when he drinks too sleeping pills.THE BLACK PRINCE is about a writer called Bradley Pearson.THE GOOD APPRENTICE is an allegory between the evil and the good.THE SEA,THE SEA won the booker prize in 1978.Arrowby has retired and starts living in a house by the beach.Here the author “investigates” the mind and the obsession.THE SEA,THE SEA is written from a first person.The protagonist is an egoistic person and that’s why the story is told from his point of view.In the book we can observe a shift from diary introduction to and Other major novels of Murdoch are:A FAIRLY HONORABLE DEFAET,THE SACRED AND PROFAN LOVE MACHINE,AN UNOFFICAIL ROSE.
The typical issues of the style of Murdoch are that she uses gothic elements.Many of her novels are saturated with philosophical and religious themes.The characters in the novels try to find meaning in their lives.
It is known that toward the end of Iris Murdoch’s life she was ill of Alzheimer’s disease.That’s why her language became simpler and the words-that she used shorter.Her unusual style as if a a device through which to show her philosophy points of view in order to display a full picture of the human being.Her aim was to change the prospect of philosophy.

4.What is a bildungsroman?Give examples and explain your choice.
A Buildungsroman is characteristic with the notion of novel which illustrates a story of a young person and the period he or she is getting matured.This person is not acknowledged with the life “path”.But with the development of the story,in the end the protagonist has enriched his experience of life which has shaped more sage conscious.
Types and examples of a buildungsroman are “Crome Yellow” and “The picture of Dorian Grey”.In this novel we have not a developing of the inner world of the character but the contrary,here we observe degradation of the personality and impossibility of coming of age.Here the picture of Dorian changes but not the protagonist-the portrait is getting older;it is like a reminding device of the effects of his deeds upon his soul.Dorian,himself does not change his appearance and does not suffer because his sins.His actions are “led” by the devilish whispers-he tries everything that is forbidden to man.That’s the reason why the portrait of Dorian is getting hideous.He kills Basil because he thinks that it’s his fault about his unfortunate doom.The desire of the protagonist for changing himself is shown in the part of the novel when he gets back to London he discovers the fact that even his serious intentions to stop committing sins,the picture does not change.At the end of the novel,when Dorian stabs the portrait,he kills himself in this way.His body is wrinkled because of the age,but it is dead,too.Dorian does not get the maturity but the demise,and the boy in the picture acquires the feaures of the protagonist before 18 years. “The picture of Dorian Grey” is an example of how a person does not get up on the ladder of maturity.He is just falling in a deep precipice from where there is no way back.

5.Heart of darkness:the plot and its symbolic meaning
Heart of darkness begins with story told by Marlow,explaining how he entered the dark continent though nobody wanted to listen to him.After this the protagonist wants to leave for Africa and to work as a captain of a steamboat.When he goes to Africa he meets the accountant who is responsible for the funds in Kurtz’s company.The man is impressed by the neatness of Marlow.The protagonist is indignant of the way the black people are treated in this region.Afterwards he goes on his traveling and on the board there are 30 black people and a few whites.When he travels down the river he comes across onto savages but the fog is an obstacle for their attack.When the fog rises they attack the men on the boat and they fire back too.But the attack of Marlow’s people is not good since the weapons shoot too high,but when Marlows blows the whistle all the savages withdraw.The protagonist reaches the inner station where he meets the Russian Fool.Kurtz is very ill but he doesn’t want to go back to England.He is worshiped by the natives and he do whatever he wants with them.While trying to escape from the natives he is caught by the Marlow’s people and they sail for England.Kurtz dies during the traveling.When Marlow gets to the England land a year after he meets with Kurtz’fiancee and he gives her old letters and leaves.
The title itself tells us that “Heart of Darkness” the book is pursed with metaphors that we should comprehend according to our view.One of the basic symbol is the Congo River.It is more likely the traveling on the river to be a metaphor for a journey in the inner world of the protagonist as in searching for Kurtz Marlow finds more about himself.He realizes that he has more in common with the natives than with the people form the civilized world.At the end the protagonist comes to the conclusion that everyone has his own dark side and it a matter of conceal not to show it.The greed is implied in the image of ivory.The agents and the managers want so much to get more and more ivory that they lose their moral in the moment of their gluttony.The Kurtz’painnting is rather touching.The woman in the painting symbolizes Europeans who want to civilize the savages.The torch is a metaphor for the values of the Europeans that should be imposed on the savages but they can’s see(the blindfolded woman) that there are negative effects which are born by their will.The distortion of the face is a symbol of savages’ reluctance to acquire their customs.The character of Kurtz is used as a symbol of what it could happen when the dark side conquer completely your heart. He is not satisfied of being mortal so he transform himself into a powerful creature.The candle on the boat is a symbol of Kurtz’s death.He gradually loses his last sparks of existence and in the end he dies out.In this moment Marlow blows out the candle.

6.The social problems in A Clockwork Orange
The social problems raised in A clockwork Orange,by Antony Burguss is a work which displays a world that is confused.The author reveals a depiction of a society where the drugs seem to be legal and used a lot,the prisons are full of criminals.The young people go out during the night and they attack every one that appears on their way.The adults go to the bars and drink all the time.As penetrating more deeply in the story of the book,we are witnesses how a society can degenerate.This society is being destroyed by the unrestrained,criminal acts.As it was mentioned the main problems of the society in A Clockwork Orange are the aggressiveness,the violence of the people,their unwillingness to solve a problem like drinking alcohol.

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1.Allegory and meaning in “Animal Farm”
George Orwell is famous for writing,which concerns political issues.One of his most popular novels-Animal Farm.It is a book which criticizes the Soviet Union.He finds fault in the people who want to realize the Soviet policies. The author uses animals which personify various types of people in order to lay out his standpoint about Stalinism.It is influenced by the first years of the Soviet Union.Orwell wants to imply that it is impossible to achieve equality in the society.It is a political allegory in which we have a projection of a sequence of events and people of importance of the Russion history.He uses real historical events in order to construct his work.The image of Russia is inbuilt in Manor Farm,the pigs are embodiment of Bolsheviks.The people are symbol of the ruling class and the animal themselves are the working class and peasants.The old Major is a representative of the personality of Lenin and Marxs,too,who dies before the rebellion as it happened with Lenin in Russian revolution.The animals “conquer” the farm.Their flag is an inverse projection of the russion flag-“hoof and horn”-“hammer and sickle”.The pigs obtain gradually more power.In the end of Animal farm Orwell finishes the work when he depicts how pigs start walking on their hind legs and they teach the sheep to do the same issue.Here the author interweaves irony and he just reveals that not all animals are equal.Animal farm,is a work that is built of images of animals who are incarnation of different types of people.That’s why it is highly allegorical literary work.Furthermore,it is scales which balance the levels of meaning.On the first stage we have a touching story about the animals, capable of speech and reason,who fight a cruel
master and put the base of a revolutionary government.On the second level there is the author’s comment on Soviet Russia.It is believed that there is third level of meaning where it is assumed that,for example,the pigs are also incarnation of leaders who rely on the manipulation and oppression.
2.Basic ideas in the “Picture of Dorian Grey”
The basic ideas of Wilde are interwoven in a intrieving way.The idea of inversion is exposed.As if here we have a novel that is split in two vertical columns.In the one column the picture stands as a symbol-the mirror,it is an image that distorts the character of the protagonist and in the other the unchanged personality and mean of Dorian.The image in the mirror is inversed.It endures development of the appearance and suffers the sins that Dorian himself does,while the character of the protagonist remains “motionless”.The idea of duplicity reigns in the “Picture of Dorian Grey”.The main character is pleased by the life he have and he is satisfied when he perceives the changes of the his own image in the picture with every sin he makes.The portrait is like a reminding device of the effects of his deeds upon his soul.He knows that exactly this is the reason why the image is getting obnoxious and he is interested in how his heart decays.He has two ways of existence.We can observe not a developing of the inner world of the character but the contrary,the degradation of the personality and impossibility of coming of age.Here the picture of Dorian changes but not the protagonist-the portrait is getting older as long as Dorian does not change his appearance and does not suffer because of his own sins.His actions are “led” by the devilish whispers-he tries everything that is forbidden to man.The concept of beauty and youth are implied too.The author wants to show that the protagonist takes adventage of his appearance and the physical attractiveness becomes as a major priority for him.He increases his love conquests.According to Dorian it is more important to look nice.

3.The problem of Evil in “Lord of the flies”
It is crucial to emphasize that the author of Lord of the flies has social background that is similar to the pupils in Lord of the flies.Accroding to Golding a person should face with the tempting issue to choose the right way instead the wrong one.The writer interweaves his strong belief in this work that in every human the evil is innate.It is just a part of our inner world.He implies the idea that our souls are like a planet that has its light side and dark side but the last one prevails over the light one.In Golding’s opinion as if there is no source to warm the inner worlds of the degraded personalities in the Lord of the Flies.In order to stress upon the theme of Evil more strongly the author depicts violent scenes and with the course of the developing of plot the pupils gradually turn themselves into monstrous hunters.The main idea of the plot is how a human is a carrier of an element of Evil and when he/she is a carrier of such an element he/she inevitably becomes an incarnation of the effects and causes of the Evil itself.Humans are like cancer cells which transmit the negative energy-the Evil-to each other and annihilate increasingly the ill organism-the human race.As if the writer suggests the idea that was implied in The time machine-the notion of self-annihilation.In The time machine the protagonist,thanks to his apparatus travels in the future and he observes how because of people’s intervention in the nature and their will to change the impossible with the innovation of different technical devices,chemical weapons and so on,human race vanishes.
4.Aldous Huxley’s early novels(before Brave New World):titles,topics,style
Aldous Huxley’s first novel is “Crome Yellow”,which has success.Th title of the novel is name of a mansion where all the events happen.It is typical example of bildungs roman(characteristic with the notion of novel which illustrates a story of a young person and the period he or she is getting matured and with the development of the story,in the end the protagonist has enriched his experience of life which has shaped more sage conscious.)It is about a young person who publishes the first volume of his biographical novel “Denise Stone”.The protagonist experiences a lot of adventures.He meet a variety of people and that has made him break his naivety and illusions.The others novels of Huxley are: “Those Barren Leaves”, “Antic Hay”, “Point Counter Point”.The topic which is concerned is about the politics.The author saturates the work with humour and uses images that are not so realistic-they are like caricatures of the characters. Topics?????? Style??????

5.Major characteristics of the stream-of conscious technique
Stream of conscious is a literary technique which shows a person’s point of view and in the same time the mental process of the protagonist is exposed.It a literary techinique which is related to the modernist movement and its great representative is Jame Joyce.Stream-of conscious is characteristic with an inner monologue.There are associative leaps in punctuation and syntax.That’s why it is difficult to follow the thoughts and the feelings of the protagonist.Stream of conscious is fictional device and the speaker's thought processes are addressed to oneself.

6.What is utopia and what is dystopia?Give examples and explain your choice.
Utopia is an imaginary place where there is perfect order,legal and political justice, and where everyone lives in harmony.Under the meaning of utopia we get the notion of a perfect society.The word has greek origin and means “no place”,a place that does not exist.Dystopia is a fictional society that is with the opposite meaning of utopia.It is a place that is characteristic with its totalitarian government and where people lead lives full of fear and devoided of human values.Examples of utopia works are:Thomas More's Utopia, Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World and others.Dystopian works: Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four.

7.William Butler Yeats:the later poetry
In the final year of life of Yeats he wrote a lot of poems.In 1917,Yeats published a collection of poems called “The Wild Swans at Coole”.The collection cencerns the topics of the irish nationalism and aesthetic.The rhyme scheme in each stanza is ABCBDD. “The Second Coming” is a poem that is first printed in 1920 and in 1921 it is included in collection called Machael Robartes and The Dancers.In the poem are used religious symbols which show his belief that Western Civilization was approaching its “end” of a 2000 year historical cycle.In 1928 William Butler Yeats published a poem,called Sailing to Byzantium,which was a part of the verse collection The Tower.Each line of the stanza in the poem is made of ten syllables and the stanza itself is built of eight lines.Here,Yeats uses different poetic skills to illustrate the metaphoric journey of a man who pursues his vision of everlasting life.

8.Well’s The Time Machine,plot and meaning
The Time machine is published in 1895.It a s story about a scientist and inventor who lives in London.He has an apparatus which move back and forth in the fourth dimension that carries him in order to achieve a journey into the future.He can observe the objects that are around him while he travels.He is taken in the year A.D.802,701.He fails into place where everyone is good-natured,happy humans who are called Eloi.They are not conflict,smart personalities.The Eloi people live in ramshackle building and they don’t work.The area which is around London seems deserted and with destroyed buildings As he investigates the place he comes to the conclusion that all that his eyes see is just a result of the intervention of people in the nature and their will to change the impossible with the innovation of different technical devices,chemical weapons and so on.When people’s attempts to do the above mentioned caused the degradation of Eloi.The traveler finds out that human race has split into two kinds of humans-the one that he has already seen, and the other-the working classess who have evolved into the repugnant Morlocks who work a lot under the ground and maintain machines that keep the Eloi obeyed to the Morlocks.He battles with Morlocks for the time machine and he succeed in escaping from them with it.He travels into the distant future and he sees that the Earth is changing to bad.There are few living creatures.He goes forward in the future and he sees the world goes dark.The only living creatures are with the size of a soccer ball,who creep on the shore,and also creatures who look like Krakens.Meaning ?????????????????????????

9.Imagism: basic characteristics and representatives
The Imagism is a movement in early 20th.The characteristic issue of the Imagism is that the authors use imagery and clear language.There is a rejection of the so typical artifice and sentiment of Romantic poetry and Victorian one,too.In the works of the representatives of this movement we can observe that they experimented with unconventional verse forms and they were direct in presentation of the interweaved elements in their works.The rhyme is composed in sequence of musical phrase.The representatives of Imagism are Ezra Loomis Pound,T.Hulme and others.Pound traveled a lot in Europe.He published his first anthology in 1914 The Imaginistes and his work was influenced Remy de Gourmont.The book of Gourment The natural Philosophy of Love was translated by Pound a little bit after the publication of Imaginist.We can observe the peak of Pound’s influential imagism in Homage to Sextus Propertius and Life and Contacts.The author’s style was clear and concrete language.He is also famous for being called the inventor of Chinese poetry.
Hulme is an author who is characteristic with his real point of view for nature and “pure” language.He wrote The New Age in 1912.He wrote also essays and lectures one of them called “Romanticism and Classisism”.




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